In the previous howto, we have seen how to research about a vulnerability in the FTP service running on our target system and exploit it to gain a shell on that system. In this howto, we will see hacking the SSH service running on port 22. It can be seen that the target is running OPenSSH 4.7p1 SSH server.
I googled about the above mentioned version to find out if it had any vulnerabilities and exploits for those vulnerabilities. After an arduous search, I found one exploit but that seemed to be not working (Its not always a positive result in hacking).
Remember that we already gained a shell on the SSH server in one of our previous howtos. We did this using the credentials we obtained during enumeration of the target system. (This is why enumeration is so important). We used this credentials in a Metasploit SSH login module to get a shell on our target system.
This time we will see another way of gaining access to the SSH server using the same module. This SSH login module can also be used to brute force the credentials of the SSH server. Let’s see how it works. Load the module and check the required options.
In order to brute force the credentials, we need to specify a dictionary for cracking username- s and passwords in the similar fashion we set while using Hydra. We will use the same dictionary we have used while performing password cracking with Hydra.
I have set the same file for both username and passwords. To conserve time I have set the option “stop_on_success” to True. This option will stop the brute forcing if it finds even one login credential. I have set the “verbose” option also to TRUE. This module is normally used to brute force multiple SSH servers at once. That’s the reason it has “RHOSTS” option instead of “RHOST” option. Any how we can still set a single IP as target. All the options are shown as below.
After all the options are set, execute the exploit using the command “run”.
Once the password is cracked successfully, the module displays the credentials and automatically gives us a shell on the target system as shown in the above image. The available sessions can be viewed as shown below.
We can also login into the SSH server using the credentials we obtained prior as shown below.
In the previous howto, we saw how information about the services running in the target system can help us in researching about them and finding vulnerabilities in those software. For example, imagine I am a black hat who performed a Nmap scan on the target (in this case, Metasploitable). The target has displayed so many banners of the services running.
Let us see if we can try out the FTP service at port 21 to get access to the system. Since I am a black hat, assume I have not performed any automated vulnerability scan. Following the process shown in the last howto, I google about vsftpd 2.3.4.
I got a lot of information about the FTP service at port 21. Vsftpd stands for very secure FTP daemon and the present version installed on Metasploitable 2 (1.e 2.3.4) has a backdoor installed inside it. It seems somebody uploaded a backdoor installed Vsftpd daemon to the site. This malicious version of vsftpd was available on the master site between June 30th 2011 and July 1st 2011. So our target might be using the malicious version. While searching for exploit on exploit database, I found a Metasploit exploit for this vulnerability. So I start Metasploit and search for the exploit. I found it after some time.
I loaded the module and checked its options using “show options” command.
The only option required is the IP address of our target to be specified in the RHOST option. I set the RHOST option and execute the exploit using the “run” command.
I successfully got a shell on the target system as shown in the image above. I try out some basic Linux commands. As this shell has root privileges (shown in the above image), I decided to have a look at the passwd file of the target. Here it is.
Since we have shell access, we can perform all tasks which we perform from the terminal of a Linux system. We can even shutdown the remote system but keep in mind that you will lose your access to the system.
Hello aspiring hackers. Welcome back. Previously we have seen how to exploit vulnerabilities in C&C servers of some popular malware like Darkcomet and PoisonIvy RATs. Today we will see how to exploit a vulnerability in another popular RAT named GhostRAT and hack a system.
Gh0st RAT is a remote access trojan designed for the Windows platform which was used by operators of GhostNet to hack into some of the most sensitive computer networks. It is actually a cyber spying computer program. Every RAT has a command & control server also called controller.
This module exploits a buffer overflow vulnerability in the Gh0st Controller when handling a drive list as received by a victim. This vulnerability allows a hacker to execute remote code on the target machine.
Its highly unlikely that you will find a system with Gh0stRAT command and control server installed during a pentest, but we can’t say anything. So imagine a scenario where I am port scanning a network for systems with port 80 open and find this machine.
Then I perform a verbose scan on this machine to know what exactly is running on port 80 and I get this.
In the ensuing research I find out that this is a GhostRAT Command and Control Server and there is a Metasploit module for this RAT. I am not yet sure if my target is running the vulnerable version of this RAT. So I fire up Metasploit and search for the module as shown below.
I load the exploit and check its options as shown below.
I set the target IP and use the “check” command to see if our target is vulnerable to this exploit. The target appears to be vulnerable. I execute the exploit using the “run” command and voila, I get a meterpreter session successfully as shown below.
I check the privileges and system information using “getuid” and “sysinfo” commands respectively.
Easy Chat Server is a Windows based software useful to set up a simple chat server. It is considered the simplest solution to set up a community chat room for a group or company. It is considered the simplest because it doesn’t require any other installation like Java. The latest version of Easy Chat server suffers from a buffer overflow vulnerability. This vulnerability is triggered during user registration to the easy chat server. Let’s see how we can exploit this vulnerability. During a pen test, while scanning the network, I happen to find a live system with open ports. Most important of this is that port 80 is open. Port 80 signifies a web server is running.
I decide to take a closer look at the system by running a verbose scan as shown below.
On port 80, a program called Easy Chat Server is running. I check Metasploit to find any exploits related to it. I found one related to versions 2.0 to 3.1 of Easy Chat Server. I am not sure of the version my target system is running. I load the exploit and check its options.
I set the target IP and use the “check” command to see if this exploit will work but unfortunately this exploit doesn’t support check command. I decide to take my chances and execute the exploit using the “run” command.
Voila, I got the meterpreter session on our target.
Hello aspiring hackers. Today we will learn about an exploit to hack a Serviio media server. This exploit works on Serviio Media Server from versions 1.4.0 to 1.8.0 (1.8 is the present version, by the way). Serviio media server is a free media server which allows users to stream media files (music, video or images) to renderer devices like a TV set, Bluray player, gaming console or mobile phone on your connected home network. It is used by a number of organizations.
This media server has a console component which runs on port 23423 by default. This module exploits an unauthenticated remote command execution vulnerability in this console component. This is possible because the console service exposes a REST API whose endpoint does not sanitize user-supplied data in the ‘VIDEO’ parameter of the ‘checkStreamUrl’ method. This parameter is used in a call to cmd.exe which results in execution of arbitrary commands. Now let’s see how this exploit works.
So imagine a hacker while port scanning a specific port on multiple machines as shown below gets one positive result.
On performing a verbose scan with OS detection enabled to probe further, it is indeed clear that a Serviio Media Server is running on this specific port and our target OS is Windows, so we can use our exploit.
Start Metasploit and load the module as shown below.
He sets the target IP and checks if the target is vulnerable (Remember we know the target is using Serviio Media server but have no idea if it is a vulnerable version).
Once the “check” command confirms that the target is vulnerable, the other required options are set and the module is executed with “run” command. We directly get a meterpreter session with system privileges on our target.
Password cracking plays a very important role in hacking. We are not always lucky to get credentials during enumeration. There are two types of password cracking.
Online password cracking
Offline password cracking
In this tutorial we will learn about online password cracking. There are many techniques used in online password cracking. Some of them are,
Dictionary Attack: Dictionary password attack is a password cracking attack where each word in a dictionary (or a file having a lot of words) is tried as password until access is gained. This method will be successful when simple passwords are set. By simple, I mean common passwords which can be found in a dictionary like password, iloveyou etc. This type of attack consumes less time but is not bound to be successful always especially if the password is not present in the dictionary.
Brute force Attack: Brute Force attack is a password cracking attack similar to dictionary attack. The only differ ence is in this attack, each and every possible combination is tried until the password is successfully cracked. For example, if there are two words say “abc” and “123” in a wordlist, other combinations like “abc1”, “abc2” and “abc3” a re also tried. Brute force attack will definitely succeed even if it means it will take years to do that.
Hybrid Attack: As the name suggests, it uses a combination of both dictionary and brute force password attacks to crack the password.
Rainbow Table Attack: Rainbow Table password cracking technique uses pre -computed hashes to crack the encrypted hashes.
Kali Linux has various tools in its arsenal for both online and offline password cracking. Some of the online password cracking tools are Acccheck, John The Ripper, Hydra and Medusa etc.
We have already seen the working of the tool Accheck during SMB enumeration. In this tutorial, we will see how to crack passwords with a tool called Hydra. THC-Hydra is a password cracker which uses brute forcing to crack the passwords of remote authentication services. It can perform rapid dictionary attacks against more than 50 protocols, including telnet, ftp, http, https, smb , several databases and much more.
On our target Metasploitable2, we have many services which allow remote authentication like telnet, ftp and SSH. We also have rlogin available. We will use Hydra on one of these services. Hydra can be accessed from the applications menu of Kali Linux. It is available both in GUI and command line utility. For this tutorial, I’m using the graphical one.
Once opened, Hydra will look like shown below.
Change the target IP to that of Metasploitable’ s IP.There are many protocols to choose from Here I am choosing ftp. Change the port to 21 as ftp is running on port 21. I selected options “Be Verbose” and “show attampts” to see the cracking process.
Click on “passwords” tab. We can give a single username and password or a file containing a number of usernames and passwords. Here I am giving the same dictionary or wordlist for both username and password. This dictionary is big.txt. I selected the options “Try Login as password” , “Try empty password” and “Try reverse login”. These options are self explanatory.
The tuning tab is used to configure proxy and number of simultaneous tries. I left it as default.
I left even “specific” tab to default. When all the settings are set, go to “Start” tab. To start the attack, click on “Start” button.
The attack is displayed as shown below.
The time of the attack depends on the number of words present in the dictionary or the wordlist we specified. The password is cracked if the phrase is present in the dictionary. If the password is not there in the wordlist, we need to use another dictionary. The big.txt dictionary I used failed to crack the password. So I used another wordlist we made during enumeration “pass.txt”. After some time, Hydra found three valid passwords.
Scroll up to see what are those passwords.
Apart from Hydra, Kali Linux also has command line tools to use for password cracking. One such tool is Medusa. Open a terminal and type medusa to see the options of that tool. Below is the command in medusa to crack ftp using a wordlist.
Once medusa cracks a password, it will be sh own as below. Once again we got three credentials we found also with Hydra.
We have used the same dictionary in both methods, but where do we find this dictionary or wordlist. Most wordlists of Kali Linux are present in /usr/share directory. Given below are different dictionaries in the “wordlists” folder.
These wordlists are named accordingly. For example, “common.txt” contains most common passwords used by users. But what if none of the dictionaries are helpless in cracking the password. Kali Linux also has tools to create our own dictionary or wordlist. Crunch is one such tool. The syntax is given below.
Here’s an example of how to create a wordlist with crunch.
We can also save the wordlist to a file as shown below.
NOTE: This howto is part of a series “Metasploitable tutorials”.
Enumeration is the process of collecting information about user names, network resources, other machine names, shares and services running on the network. Although a little bit boring, it can play a major role in the success of the pentest. In the previous howto, we saw how to perform SMB enumeration and got some usernames on our target. So we don’t need to perform SMTP enumeration. But we may not be so lucky that SMB enumeration will be successful on every network. For networks like these, we may need to enumerate other services like SMTP.
First let me give you a basic introduction of SMTP. SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. As the name implies, it is used to send email. It uses port 25 by default. If you ever sent an email, you have definitely used SMTP. SMTP servers talk with other SMTP servers to deliver the email to the intended recipient. Luckily this all happens behind the scenes and we don’t have to break our heads to understand this. But there are some things we have to understand about SMTP that will help us in enumeration.
As the term “simple” implies, SMTP server can only understand simple text commands. Sender of the mail communicates with a mail receiver by issuing these command strings and supplying necessary data. Some of the important commands are
1. HELO – sent by a client to introduce itself.
2. EHLO – another way of client introducing itself to server
3. HELP – used to see all commands.
4. RCPT – to identify message recipients.
5. DATA – sent by a client to initiate data transfer.
6. VRFY – verify if the mailbox exists.
7. QUIT – to end the session.
SMTP enumeration can be performed in many ways. The easiest way to do this is by connecting to the SMTP service port of the target with telnet (we have seen this in scanning and banner grabbing).
As you can see, we got successfully connected. From here, we can verify manually if each user exists or not. If you remember the article on SMB enumeration, we already have some usernames available. Lets use the VRFY command to check if users “user”, “msfadmin” and “root” exist in this system.
Yes, they exist. Similarly, let us test if user kalyan exists. As you can see in the above image, the user kalyan doesn’t exist. Nmap also has a script to perform SMTP enumeration. We can use the script as shown below.
By default, Nmap uses RCPT method to check if a particular user exists. Unfortunately for me, it gave unhandled status code here. This Nmap script can be modified to use different methods. Here I changed it to use VRFY method to enumerate users. I have only scanned port 25 to remove the clutter. But still it gave me the same error.
There is another tool in the arsenal of Kali Linux which is built specifically for SMTP enumeration. Its called smtp-user-enum. Here let us test if a user called “root” exists on the target system as shown below.
Since user “root” exists, I’m assuming other users like “msfadmin” and “user” also exist. While performing SMB enumeration, we created a wordlist which can be users on the target system. Now let’s enumerate if all the users in that wordlist exist. It can be done as shown below.
All the users we got during SMB enumeration exist. That’s good. In this case, we already have the wordlist of usernames (we got during SMB enumeratin). What if we don’t have the exact wordlist. We can use different wordlists present in Kali Linux. These wordlists are present in /usr/share/dirb directory.
What We Achieved?
We got some usernames which may be useful to us while exploiting the system in future. All these usernames have a recipient email address to them.
Hello everybody. Today we will see about Zabbix toggleids sql injection exploit. First things first, what’s Zabbix. It is an enterprise open source monitoring software for networks and applications designed to monitor and track the status of various network services, servers, and other network hardware.
Zabbix uses MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Oracle or IBM DB2 to store data. Its backend is written in C and the web frontend is written in PHP. It has a web based interface and can be installed in both Linux and Windows. It boasts of over 13,000 downloads per week.
Zabbix version 3.0.3 suffers from SQL injection which can be exploited to steal the credentials. Let’s see how this exploit works. Start Metasploit and load the module as shown below.
As you can see, we need to set only one option “RHOST” which is the IP address of the target running Zabbix. Once you set the target, check whether its vulnerable or not using the “check” command.
Once we know target is vulnerable, executing the exploit using command “run” downloads the current usernames and password hashes from database to a JSON file. We can crack these password hashes and login into the Zabbix instance. See how to crack hashes with Kali Linux.
Hello aspiring hackers. In many hacking scenarios, we encounter hashes. To those newbies who have no idea what hashes are, they are encrypted text ( literally we can’t call it text ). Normally they are used to encrypt passwords for website users, operating system users etc. Today our tutorial is about cracking hashes.
For this howto, we will use NewsP Free News Script 1.4.7 which had a credential disclosure vulnerability as shown below. Imagine we got the username and password hash as shown below. The only thing that stops me from accessing the website is password in encrypted format.
The first step in cracking hashes is to identify the type of hash we are cracking. Kali Linux has an inbuilt tool to identify the type of hash we are cracking. It’s hash-identifier. Open a terminal and type command hash-identifier.
Enter the hash we need to crack as shown above and hit ENTER. It will show the possible hash type as shown below. In our case, it is MD5 or a variant of it.
We can also use another tool hashid for similar purpose. It’s syntax is as shown below.
We know what the type of hash is. Now, it’s time to crack the hash. We will use a tool called ‘findmyhash’. To use this tool, we need to specify the hash type ( which we already know ) and hash after it as shown below. This tool tries to crack the hash by using various online hash crackers available.
After successfully cracking the hash, it will display us the corresponding password as shown below. In our case, the password is admin.
Hello friends. Today we will see two exploits: credential disclosure and arbitrary text file download in WebNMS Framework server 5.2. To those newbies who don’t know what WebNMS Framework Server is, it is an industry-leading framework for building network management applications and has over 25,000 deployments worldwide.Its latest version consists two vulnerabilities : credential disclosure and arbitrary text file download.
First let us see the credential disclosure exploit. Start Metasploit and load the exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to check its options. This server runs on port 9090.
Set the target and run the exploit. It will download the credentials and store it in a file as shown below.
The next vulnerability is arbitrary text file download. Load the exploit and see its options. It is automatically set to download shadow file in Linux.
Before running the exploit type command “info” to see the information about this exploit. As you can see below, it can only download text files and if it is a Windows instance the file should be in the same directory of WebNMS.
Since we are running WebNMS framework server on a Windows machine, I have created a text file called secret.txt in the same directory. Let us try the exploit now. Set the target address, file path as shown below and run the exploit. We can see that the file has been successfully downloaded and saved in a directory.