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How to configure armitage on Kali Linux

If you tried to start armitage on Kali Linux, it will show you the following error.

The error says that the service cannot connect to the database. Now let’s see how to configure armitage on Kali Linux. First, lets check if armitage is installed on our machine or not. Open terminal and type the command “apt-cache search armitage”Then type the command “apt-get install armitage”. If everything is right, it tells you that armitage is already installed.

Now let’s rectify the database connection problem. Type the command “service postgresql start”. This will start our database service. Then start metasploit service by typing the command “service metasploit start”

Then type the command “armitage”. You should successfully see armitage working.

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How to install GUI in Ubuntu Server

Ubuntu server comes default with a Command line interface. Of course we can install GUI in Ubuntu Server if we find command line troublesome. Here are the steps.

First navigate to the “etc/apt” directory and open a file named “sources.list.d” using the command “vi sources.list.d”. 

Then check whether software from “universe” ad “multiverse” repositories are allowed.

Then type the command “sudo apt-get update” to update all repositories.

After updating is finished, type the command “sudo apt-get upgrade”.

Then type the command “sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop”. It will take some time to finish all the processes.

After the installation is finished, restart the server to see your GUI interface.

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How to connect Vmware with GNS3

I am self learning for CCNA. A few months back, I got a thought if we can simulate routers in Vmware Workstation. While I was searching for it I found a different solution, GNS3. After simulating routers in GNS3 and practicing CLI interface, I had another idea if we can simulate CISCO Graphical User Interface on our PC. This article is  result of that.

In this article, we are not only going to see how to connect Vmware with GNS3 but also see how to simulate CISCO Graphical user Interface (GUI). For this I use,

1. Vmware Workstation .

2. Windows XP as Guest OS.

3. Cisco Security Device Manager v25.

4. GNS3.

5.  C7200 Router Image.

Open Vmware Workstation. On the menu Select “Edit>Virtual Network Editor”. On the Virtual network editor, click on “Vmnet1″ network. It is a default Host-only type network adapter of Vmware. Observe its settings. Enable DHCP server.

Install Windows XP as a guest. On its virtual machine settings, change the network adapter to “Vmnet1″.

Power on the machine. Install Cisco SDM ( I leave the getting Cisco SDM part to you ). Open CMD and type “ipconfig” to see its IP address. Take note of this.

Open GNS3. Click on “Browse all devices”.

Select Router “c7200″ and drag it to the workspace. Do the same with “Cloud”.

Close the All Devices tab. Right click on the Cloud.  Select “Configure”, a ‘node configurator’ window will open. On this window, click on “C1″.

On the NIO Ethernet tab, in the “Generic Ethernet NIO tab” dropdown menu, select our network adapter (Vmnet1) from the dropdown menu and click on “Add”. Click on “OK” to close the window.

Right click on the router. Select “Configure”, click on “R1″. Select slots tab. In the Slot 1 dropdown menu, select “PA-4E”. Click on Apply an close the window. The selection PA-4E creates four Ethernet ports on the router. Right click on the router and start the router.

Add a link from “cloud( Vmnet1)” adapter to the “e1/0″ port on the router.

Hover your mouse over the router. We can see all the ports.

Similarly hover your mouse over the cloud to see its connections.

Right click on the router and select “Console”. In the global configuration mode, type the following commands.

ip http server”

ip http secure-server”

These commands set up http and https servers respectively which are needed for Cisco SDM.

Type the command “interface Ethernet 1/0″. We are entering into specific configuration mode of our connected interface. Type the command “ip address 192.168.10.3 255.255.255.0″. This sets the interface IP address and subnet mask. Make sure the router IP address is in the same subnet as that of our guest OS in Vmware workstation. Type “no shut” and exit to the privileged mode.

Let’s ping our guest from the router. to ensure that we are connected to Vmware Guest.

Since success rate is 100%  we have successfully connected Vmware and GNS3. Now let’s do the Cisco SDM part. On our Guest machine click on Cisco SDM. A SDM launcher window will open. Type the IP address of the router and click on Launch.

Internet Explorer will open as below. Make sure Internet Explorer is configured to allow pop ups and to allow Activex to run from the computer.

After some time the following popup will open. Don’t close it.

Then we might see a certificate warning. Click on Yes.

After some processing, Cisco SDM will open.

We have successfully simulated Cisco GUI on our PC. Happy practice friends.

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Various Command Line Modes on Cisco routers and switches

Cisco IOS is the internetwork operating system of both the Cisco switches and routers. It has two interfaces command line interface(CLI) and Graphical User Interface(GUI). Since CCNA exam will surely test your knowledge on these interfaces, it is important to get familiar with them.

Cisco’s IOS command-line interface (CLI) is a text-based interface integrated with the IOS. When a switch or router boots up, the IOS loads the startup configuration from NVRAM and displays the IOS prompt, waiting for commands. We can enter the IOS commands at the IOS prompt.

In this article, we will see various command line modes on Cisco routers and switches. For this, we are going to use Packet Tracer. To see what is Packet Tracer and how to install it in both Linux and Windows, go here. For a startup guide on Packet Tracer, see here. Open Packet Tracer  and select a Cisco 2960 switch.

Hover on the switch to see its ports.

Select a Computer from the End Devices and connect them with a Console wire. What we are simulating here is connecting to the switch from a PC through console.

Click on the Host device( Computer ). On the window that opens, click on Desktop tab and Click on Terminal.

The console opens with the switch booting. Switch finishes its booting operation and loads  into user EXEC mode.

Coming to the modes of Cisco IOS, the Cisco IOS has five command line modes.

  • Setup mode
  • User EXEC mode
  • Privileged EXEC mode
  • Global configuration mode
  • Specific Configuration mode

Setup mode

Setup mode is the initial configuration mode of Cisco switches and routers. They start in setup mode when no startup configuration exists in NVRAM. After completion of the setup mode,  the Cisco IOS transitions to user EXEC mode.

User EXEC mode

The user EXEC mode is the normal operation mode on Cisco switches and routers. The Cisco IOS user EXEC prompt is the switch or router name followed by the ‘greater than’ character >. See all the commands available in user EXEC prompt by typing ‘?’

Privileged EXEC mode

Privileged EXEC mode is the advanced operation mode of Cisco IOS. It has been designed to restrict access to IOS commands that can have adverse effects on the Cisco device and its configuration. To enter privileged EXEC mode type “enable” or “en” .Privileged EXEC prompt is comprised of the switch or router name followed by the # character. To exit the privileged EXEC prompt type “disable”.

To see the commands available in privileged EXEC prompt, type ?.

Global Configuration mode

The global configuration mode is comprised of commands pertaining to the entire Cisco device. In other words, if we need to execute commands to modify the behavior of either the whole switch or the whole router we need to set the IOS in global configuration
mode. Global configuration mode can only be enabled from  privileged
EXEC mode by typing config t” or “conf t”. The prompt in this mode is comprised of the device name followed by “(config)#”.

See the commands available in this mode by typing ‘?’. If we need to execute a command not available in the global configuration mode we should prefix the command by “do”.

Specific configuration mode

The specific configuration mode is used for commands that affect the configuration of either just one part or range of components of the Cisco device. Suppose we want to work on a few interfaces (or ports) on our switch or router we need to enable specific configuration mode. We can enable specific configuration mode only from the global configuration mode by selecting the components we want to work with. The prompt in this mode is comprised of the router or switch host name followed by “(config-<component>)#”.

Let’s select interface fastethernet 0/1 by typing “interface fastethernet 0/1″. 

If we want to run a command not available in specific configuration mode prefix the command by do”. For example, run the command “do show running-config” in specific configuration mode.

We can exit from global configuration mode and specific configuration mode by typing “exit”.