Kali Linux is the most advanced penetration testing distribution with a number of tools. While using these tools a measure of anonymity is required. Today we are going to see how to spoof your IP address in Kali Linux. First, check your IP address by visiting any website which shows your IP address ( http://www.whatismyip.com ). Then go to the site www.vpnbook.com.
Download the Euro1 Server OpenVPN certificate bundle as shown below. Note down the username and password given. We will need it in later steps.
When you click on the download link, the following window opens. Since it is a zip package, system will prompt whether to open it with unzip ( the default option ). Click on “OK”.
Open the terminal and navigate to the directory where the contents of the zip archive have been unzipped. Type the command “ls” to see the unzipped files. We are going to use the vpnbook-euro1-udp53.ovpn package.
OpenVPN has been installed by default in the Kali Linux distribution. Type the command “openvpn vpnbook-euro1-udp53.ovpn” to start the process.
The installation starts. Enter the username and password we noted above when prompted.
After a short time, the process is completed. Check your IP address again. If everything goes well, your IP address will be changed.
Understanding subnetting is very important not only for those preparing for CCNA exam but also network administrators. Today, I am going to teach you how to create a subnet in a network. For this, I will use Packet Tracer software. To know what is subnetting and why we need it go here. So let’s start.
Imagine I formed a small software company named shunya whose network looks like below. I hired one Java developer, one software tester, one HR and one network administrator. I have been assigned the IP address range from 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.255.
I have enabled DHCP on my router as below.
After one year, imagine my company has received Abrahamic blessings from GOD and has seen rapid growth. Now the company has three Java developers, three software testers and a dedicated HR team. Not only that, my company now has moved into Remote Infrastructure Management(RIM) and has a Network Operation Center(NOC) and Security Operation Center(SOC). Total I have 15 computers in my network which looks like below.
Now see the image below. Here the machine “JD1″ sends a packet to machine “Testing3″. We can see here that for communication between machines “JD1: and “Testing3″ other machines have also been disturbed.
So for this reason, I decided to subnet the network. I decide to divide the network into three subnets as shown below.
To create a subnet, first we need to have proper planning as to how many subnets we need and how many we may need in the future. Presently, I need three subnets. The number of subnets should always be calculated in the powers of 2.
2 to the power of 1 = 2
This doesn’t satisfy our requirement as we need three subnets.
2 to the power of 2 = 4
This satisfies our requirement. So we need to take two bits from the host portion of the IP address. 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.255 is the address range available to us with subnet mask 255.255.255.0, Writing the subnet mask in the binary notation, it is
11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
255 255 255 0
The first 24 bits are network bits and the last eight bits are host bits. To create three subnets, we need to take two bits from the host portion of the address as explained above.
11111111 111111111 11111111 11000000
255 255 255 192
Four subnets which can be created from the above subnet mask are,
192.168.10.0 to 192.168.10.63 ( with host bits 00000000 )
192.168.10.64 to 192.168.10.127 ( with host bits 01000000 )
192.168.10.128 to 192.168.10.191 ( with host bits 10000000 )
192.168.10.192 to 192.168.10.255 ( with host bits 11000000 )
Since we require only three subnets, we will create the first three subnets. The first subnet ( 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.63 ) comprises of Java Developers and Software testers. The commands are as below on the interface.
If you go to any machine on this subnet and look at its IP address, it will be like below.
Now the subnet for the Human Resource Department ( 192.168.10.128 to 192.168.10.191 ) . This will be like below.
The third subnet ( 192.168.10.64 to 192.168.10.127 ) comprises of NOC and SOC.
Now our network has been successfully sub netted into three subnets and we still have another subnet to use for future use.
Hope this was helpful. If you have any doubts regarding this article please comment below. Thank you.
I am self learning for CCNA. A few months back, I got a thought if we can simulate routers in Vmware Workstation. While I was searching for it I found a different solution, GNS3. After simulating routers in GNS3 and practicing CLI interface, I had another idea if we can simulate CISCO Graphical User Interface on our PC. This article is result of that.
In this article, we are not only going to see how to connect Vmware with GNS3 but also see how to simulate CISCO Graphical user Interface (GUI). For this I use,
1. Vmware Workstation .
2. Windows XP as Guest OS.
3. Cisco Security Device Manager v25.
5. C7200 Router Image.
Open Vmware Workstation. On the menu Select “Edit>Virtual Network Editor”. On the Virtual network editor, click on “Vmnet1″ network. It is a default Host-only type network adapter of Vmware. Observe its settings. Enable DHCP server.
Install Windows XP as a guest. On its virtual machine settings, change the network adapter to “Vmnet1″.
Power on the machine. Install Cisco SDM ( I leave the getting Cisco SDM part to you ). Open CMD and type “ipconfig” to see its IP address. Take note of this.
Open GNS3. Click on “Browse all devices”.
Select Router “c7200″ and drag it to the workspace. Do the same with “Cloud”.
Close the All Devices tab. Right click on the Cloud. Select “Configure”, a ‘node configurator’ window will open. On this window, click on “C1″.
On the NIO Ethernet tab, in the “Generic Ethernet NIO tab” dropdown menu, select our network adapter (Vmnet1) from the dropdown menu and click on “Add”. Click on “OK” to close the window.
Right click on the router. Select “Configure”, click on “R1″. Select slots tab. In the Slot 1 dropdown menu, select “PA-4E”. Click on Apply an close the window. The selection PA-4E creates four Ethernet ports on the router. Right click on the router and start the router.
Add a link from “cloud( Vmnet1)” adapter to the “e1/0″ port on the router.
Hover your mouse over the router. We can see all the ports.
Similarly hover your mouse over the cloud to see its connections.
Right click on the router and select “Console”. In the global configuration mode, type the following commands.
“ip http server”
“ip http secure-server”
These commands set up http and https servers respectively which are needed for Cisco SDM.
Type the command “interface Ethernet 1/0″. We are entering into specific configuration mode of our connected interface. Type the command “ip address 192.168.10.3 255.255.255.0″. This sets the interface IP address and subnet mask. Make sure the router IP address is in the same subnet as that of our guest OS in Vmware workstation. Type “no shut” and exit to the privileged mode.
Let’s ping our guest from the router. to ensure that we are connected to Vmware Guest.
Since success rate is 100% we have successfully connected Vmware and GNS3. Now let’s do the Cisco SDM part. On our Guest machine click on Cisco SDM. A SDM launcher window will open. Type the IP address of the router and click on Launch.
Internet Explorer will open as below. Make sure Internet Explorer is configured to allow pop ups and to allow Activex to run from the computer.
After some time the following popup will open. Don’t close it.
Then we might see a certificate warning. Click on Yes.
After some processing, Cisco SDM will open.
We have successfully simulated Cisco GUI on our PC. Happy practice friends.
Virtual penetration testing lab is a lab created on a single system using any virtualization software. It can be very helpful for people practicing for CEH or similar certification. Any penetration testing lab has two machines, attacker and victim. In this lab we will set up Kali Linux as the attacker and Windows XP( most favorite victim machine ) as the victim. I am going to set up this lab in Vmware Workstation 9. Hope this will be helpful.
First of all install Kali Linux and Windows XP in Vmware Workstation.
Shut them down. In the Vmware Workstation menu, Select “Edit”and click on Virtual Network editor.
The window below will open showing the virtual network adapters. Click on “Add network”.
Vmware provides nine virtual networks from 0 to 9. Vmnet0, Vmnet1 and Vmnet8 are automatically assigned for bridged, Host-only and NAT types of network respectively. Select the network “Vmnet3″.
We can see that our network is added as Host-Type with a automatically assigned subnet IP.
Click on our network. We can see its settings below.
Deselect the option ‘Connect a host virtual adapter to the network’. This’. This‘.This will make our network a custom type. Change the subnet IP to 10.10.10.0( choice is yours). Select the ‘Use local DHCP service to distribute IP address to VMs‘ option. This will automatically assign IP addresses to our machines. Click on ‘DHCP settings‘.
You will see the below window. Make changes if you like. I am going to leave it default. Click OK twice to exit.
We have successfully created our custom network. Now let’s add our machines to the network. Open the tab of Kali Linux and click on ‘network adapter‘ setting.
In the settings, select the ‘custom‘ radio button and select the network ‘Vmnet3 from the dropdown menu. Click on OK.
Do the same for Windows XP. Then let’s boot up our victim machine and check it’s IP address by typing ‘ipconfig‘ in the command line. The DHCP server has automatically assigned it the IP address 10.10.10.129.
Boot the attacker machine and check it’s IP address by typing ‘ifconfig’ in the terminal. It has been assigned the address 10.10.10.128.
Ping the victim IP machine (10.10.10.129) to see whether the two machines can communicate.
We have successfully created a virtual penetration testing lab. Happy testing.
In this article, we are going to see how to set up a web server in Ubuntu Server. Before that, I want to give credit for this article to Mike of www.funwithlinux.net. I learnt how to install the web server from this article, made some mistakes initially but finally successful.
What is a web server? It is a server which hosts websites. Each and every website has a server. Most web servers are set up on Linux for the primary reason that it is free. I am going to set up my web server on Ubuntu Server 12.04.
To set up a web server we are going to install four components, Apache (server software), PHP (scripting language used to create webpages), MYSQL (database), PHP-MYSQL (MySQL support in PHP ). Login as root into Ubuntu server.
In the terminal type “apt-get install apache2″to install Apache package. Type ‘Y’ when system prompts you to continue.
To check whether apache packages have been installed or not type the command “wget localhost index.html” in the terminal. This will download the index.html file to the local directory. Type “ls”to see if the file has been downloaded or not. If it is present, apache has been correctly installed.
The apache2 config file is located at “/etc/apache2/”. In this same directory we have a directory named ‘conf.d’. Configuration files( files with the suffix .conf ) in this directory will be parsed by apache2 during startup. If we intend to run multiple sites from the same server, we need to put our config files here. Let’s create a file name “shunya.com.conf”.
In the file shunya.com.conf, add the following text and save the file. The first line tells Apache to listen on port 80. The second line shows the ServerAdmin and is optional. The third line shows our web server’s root directory. The fourth line is host header Apache2 will listen for, as sent by the end user’s browser. The fifth line is the file used for logging errors. This line is also optional but is very helpful. The settings not configured under <VirtualHost> tags will be inherited from apache2.conf or other configuration files. Close the file by typing “:wq”.
As we created the config file of our host, we need to create our root directory referenced in the config file i.e “/var/www/shunya.com”. Navigate to the directory by typing “cd /var/www/”. Create new directory named ‘shunya.com’ by typing “mkdir shunya.com”. Make the root user the owner of the directory by typing the command “chown root:www-data /var/www/shunya.com -R”. Make this directory readable and executable by typing the command “chmod 550 /var/www/shunya.com -R”.
Create a file named index.php in our root directory shunya.com.
Edit the file as below. We will echo some Archimedes in our index.php file. Save and exit the file.
Next, we have to install PHP. Type the command “apt-get install php5″.Type Y at appropriate prompts.
Reload the apache config file by typing “service apache2 reload”. Then restart the apache service using “service apache2 restart”.
Let’s see if our website is working. From a remote machine which has access to your web server open the browser and type the IP address of the web server. If we get “Eureka Eureka” displayed, then our server is working.
Install MySQL server by typing “apt-get install mysql-server”.
The system will prompt you to set a root user password for MYSQL. Set the password and confirm it again.
Type the command “apt-get install php5-mysql” to install MySQL support for PHP.
Hi everybody, today I’m gonna show you remote password cracking with Brutus. For the newbies, script kiddie is a person with little knowledge of hacking or any programming languages and instead searches for automatic tools to hack the computers. In this scenario, script kiddie is using a Windows XP machine and two tools Zenmap and Brutus avilable for free to download. As you will see, Zenmap is used for scanning for any open ports of live machines and Brutus is a password cracker.
Imagine I am the script kiddie, I first find out my own computer’s ip address by typing the command “ipconfig” in the command line.
The ip address of my system happens to be 10.10.10.1. I decide to scan the following range of ip addresses to look for any live hosts. In the target option, I specify ip address as 10.10.10.2-10 and I choose profile as intense scan to get maximum information about the target. After performing the scan, the results show that only one system 10.10.10.3 is alive.
The scan also shows that the victim machine which is live is running a ftp server and its operating system is Windows XP.
I decide to use Brutus to crack the remote FTP password. Brutus has both dictionary and bruteforce attack options. I decide to choose dictionary attack since it is faster than bruteforcing. Brutus comes with a built in username(users.txt) and password list(pass.txt).As the victim machine is running Windows xp which comes with a default administrator account, I decide to add “administrator” to the users.txt file.
I choose type as FTP since I am about to crack a FTP server.
Then I select the file pass.txt containing some common passwords and just hope to crack the password.
Then after starting the cracker, Brutus runs and gives one positive authentication result.
Username : administrator
Then I try to log into the FTP server of the remote machine using cmd with the authentication result achieved above.
I successfully logged into the FTP server.Once I am into the remote machine I try some ftp commands but before that I change my local directory to Desktop.
Then I use DIR command to list the directories in the FTP server.
There are four directories in the FTP server:Detroit,Images,lena and users. I go to the users directory using command cd users and then list the files in the directory by using command ls. There is one text file named users.txt in the directory.
I decide to download the file users.txt to my machine using the command get users.txt. Since I had set my local directory to desktop it will be downloaded to desktop.
Let’s see the contents of the users.txt file just downloaded. It contains some usernames and passwords.
In the same way, I enter into another directory of interest to me “Images” and download the only image present in it to my desktop.
In this way, I can download any number of files from the remote server to my local machine. That’s all for in password cracking with brutus.